**Chapter 6. Two-rotor structure of the photon. Photon gyroscopic effect**

Leonov V. S.
Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge
International Science Publishing, 2010, 421-511 pages.

After introducing in 1905 the radiation
quantum referred to subsequently as the photon, Einstein is justifiably is
regarded as one of the founders of quantum theory. However, Einstein could not
accept the statistical nature of the wave function which is the basis of the
calculation apparatus of modern quantum (wave) mechanics and in his final
months assumed that the quantum theory should be deterministic. Only after
discovery in 1996 of the space-time quantum (quanton) was it possible to
develop a deterministic quantum theory. The classic analysis of the structure
of the main elementary particle could be carried out, including the photon, and
bypassing the wave function. It was found that the photon is a two-rotor relativistic
particle and that its electrical and magnetic rotors exist simultaneously and
are situated in the orthogonal polarisation planes. The intersection of the
polarisation planes forms the main axis of the photon around which the
polarisation waves can rotate. The main axis of the photon is directed in the
direction of the speed vector of the movement of the photon in the quantised
medium. In this form, the photon represents a wave– particle, some concentrated
bunch of the electromagnetic energy of the quantised space-time, flying with
the wave speed of light. The electromagnetic field of the photon satisfies the
two-rotor Maxwell equation. Calculation parameters of the photon were
determined for the first time: the strength of the electrical and magnetic
fields in the rotors of the photon, the densities of the electrical and
magnetic displacement currents, the currents themselves, and many other
parameters which could not previously be calculated. It was found that
deceleration of light in an optical medium is caused by the wave trajectory of
the photon as a result of the probable capture by the photon of atomic centres
of the lattice of the optical medium with the speed vector of the photon in the
quantised medium not coinciding with the speed vector in the optical medium.

6.1.
Introduction

6.2.
Electromagnetic nature of the photon and
rotor models

6.3.
Electromagnetic trace of the photon in the quantised medium

6.4. The
wave equation of the photon

6.5. Total
two-rotor structure of the photon

6.6.
Reasons for the deceleration of light in the optical medium

6.7.
Probable capture of atomic centres of the lattice of the optical medium by a photon

6.8. Vector
diagram of the complex speed of the photon in the optical medium

6.9. Wave
trajectory of the photon in the optical medium

6.10.
Forces acting on the photon in the optical medium

6.11.
Refractive index of the optical medium

Conclusions

References

**Conclusions**

1. The new fundamental discoveries of
the space-time quantum (quanton) and of the superstrong electromagnetic
interaction (SEI) open a new era in the quantum theory, establishing the
deterministic nature of the quantum mechanics and electrodynamics. Most
importantly, the new fundamental discoveries explain the reasons for quantum
phenomena hidden in the quantum nature of space-time. It may be confirmed that
there are no nonquantised objects in the nature. The quantised objects include
the radiation quantum (photon). Previously, it was assumed that energy
quantisation takes place by means of radiation quantum. Now we have established
the quantisation of the very radiation quantum by the quantons (space-time quanta)
where the radiation quantum (photon) represents a secondary wave formation in
the quantised space-time.

2. The new fundamental discoveries have
made it possible to apply the classic concept in the quantum theory and, at the
same time, describe for the first time the nature and structure of the photon
whose parameters can be calculated, bypassing the static wave function. It has
been established that the photon is a two-rotor relativistic particle whose
electrical and magnetic rotors exist simultaneously and are located in the
orthogonal polarisation planes. The intersection of the polarisation planes
forms the main axis of the photon around which polarisation planes can rotate.
The main axis of the photon is directed along the vector of the speed of
movement of the photon in the quantised medium. In this form, the photon is a
wave-particle, some concentrated bunch of electromagnetic energy of the quantised
space-time, travelling at the speed of light.

3. The variable electromagnetic field of
the photon satisfies the two-rotor Maxwell equation and the classic wave
equation. The calculation parameters of the photon were determined for the
first time: the strength of the electrical and magnetic fields in the photon
rotors, the density of the electrical and magnetic bias currents, the currents
themselves, and many other parameters which could not previously be calculated.

4. It has been established that the
deceleration of light in the optical medium is determined by the wave
trajectory of the photon as a result of the probability capture by the photon
of the atomic centres of the lattice of the optical medium when the vector of
the photon speed in the quantised medium does not coincide with the vector of
speed in the optical medium. In fact, two waves propagate in the optical medium
and these waves are permanently connected together: a) the electromagnetic wave
which travels with the speed of light

**C**0 in the quantised medium and is transferred by the light-bearing medium; b) the geometrical wave which propagates in the optical medium with phase speed**C***p*0 lower than the speed of light**C**0, which is synchronized with the electromagnetic wave and determines the wave trajectory of the photon in the optical medium.
5. It has been shown that the wave
trajectory of the photon in the optical medium can be represented by the first
harmonics of the triangular periodic function. The condition of movement of the
photon along the wave trajectory is the constancy of the speed of light in the
quantised medium. In this case, the imaginary motion along a straight line in
the optical medium in the same period of time as in the case of the wave
trajectory is regarded as the deceleration of light in the optical medium. The
calculations show that the refractive index of the light by the optical medium
can be regarded as the averaged parameter of the medium in movement of the
photon along the wavy trajectory.

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