**Chapter**

**2.**

**Electromagnetic nature and structure of cosmic vacuum**

Leonov V. S.
Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge
International Science Publishing, 2010, 68-166 pages.

New fundamental discoveries of the
space-time quantum (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI)
determine the electromagnetic structure of quantised space-time. The quanton is a complicated weightless
particle which includes four charges – quarks: two electrical (+1

*e*and –1*e*) and two magnetic (+1*g*and – 1*g*) linked by the relationship*g*=*C*_{0}*e*.
2.1.
Introduction

2.2/
Electromagnetic quantisation of space-time

2.2.1.
Basis of the theory of EQM and Superunification

2.2.2.
Unification of electricity and magnetism into electromagnetism. Structure of
the quanton

2.2.3. The
charge of the Dirac monopole

2.2.4.
Dimensions of the quanton

2.2.5.
Symmetry of electricity and magnetism inside a quanton

2.2.6. The
structure of the monopole-quark

2.2.7.
Electromagnetic quantisation of space

2.2.8.
Electrical symmetry of space

2.2.9. The
speed of movement of the space clock

2.2.10. Stability
and energy capacity of the quanton

2.3.
Disruption of electrical and magnetic equilibrium of the quantised space-time

2.3.1. The
state of electromagnetic equilibrium of quantised space-time

2.3.2.
Disruption of electrical and magnetic equilibrium in statics

2.3.3.
Disruption of electromagnetic equilibrium in dynamics. Maxwell equations

2.3.4.
Displacement of the charges in the quanton and bias currents

2.3.5.
Displacement of the charges in the quanton in statics

2.3.6.
Polarisation energy of the quanton

2.3.7.
Nature of electromagnetic oscillations in vacuum

2.3.8.
Quantisation of the electromagnetic wave

2.3.9.
Circulation of electrical and magnetic fluxes in the electromagnetic wave

2.3.10.
Transfer of energy by the quanton in the electromagnetic wave

2.4.
Electromagnetic tensioning of vacuum. Strings and superstrings

2.4.1.
Elastic quantised medium (EQM)

2.4.2.
Tensioning of the electromagnetic
superstring

2.5.3.
Tension tensor in vacuum

2.5. Conclusions
for chapter 2

**2.5. Conclusions for chapter 2**

New fundamental discoveries of the
space-time quantum (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI)
determine the electromagnetic structure of quantised space-time.

The quanton is a complicated weightless
particle which includes four charges – quarks: two electrical (+1

*e*and –1*e*) and two magnetic (+1*g*and – 1*g*) linked by the relationship*g*=*Ce*.
The quanton is the carrier of
electromagnetism, space and time, and a carrier of strong electromagnetic
interaction. The process of electromagnetic quantisation of space is associated with
filling of its volume with quantons. The quanton diameter determines the discreteness of
the quantised space-time of the order of 10

^{–}^{25}m.
When analysing the electromagnetic
perturbation of the quantised space-time, the nature of electromagnetic
phenomena, the laws of electromagnetic induction, Maxwell equations and
Pointing vector have been described for the first time.

The electromagnetism of quantised
space-time is fully symmetric and determines the transfer of electromagnetic
energy in accordance with the Maxwell equations. The nature of rotors in the
electromagnetic wave has been determined.

It has also been shown that as we move
deeper, initially into the region of the microworld of elementary particles and
the atomic nucleus ~101 m

^{–15}m and subsequently into the region of the ultra-microworld ~10^{–25}m of the quantised space-time, we encounter higher and higher energy concentrations. The energy capacity of the quanton is colossal and estimated at 10^{73}J/m3. This is sufficient to generate a universe as a result of a big bang in activation of^{3}of vacuum.
It has also been found that the
electromagnetic perturbation of the vacuum is described by a simple equation: D

*x*= –D*y*which can be expanded into the main equations of the electromagnetic field in vacuum. The displacement from the equilibrium deposition of the electrical D*x*and magnetic D*y*charges – quarks inside the quanton disrupts the electrical and magnetic equilibrium of the quantised space-time. Real bias currents were found in the electromagnetic wave.
Inside the quantised space-time we can
find an electromagnetic string or a superstring of quantons which determines
the colossal tension of the quantised space-time. Taking into account the fact
that the quanton is a volume elastic element similar to some extent to an
electronic clock specifying the rate of electromagnetic processes and time, the
quantum not only combines electricity and magnetism but, being a space-time
quantum, it combines the space and time into a single substance: quantised
space-time.

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