вторник, 12 февраля 2013 г.

Theory of Superunification. Chapter 6. Two-rotor structure of the photon. Photon gyroscopic effect


Chapter 6. Two-rotor structure of the photon. Photon gyroscopic effect

Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 421-511 pages.

After introducing in 1905 the radiation quantum referred to subsequently as the photon, Einstein is justifiably is regarded as one of the founders of quantum theory. However, Einstein could not accept the statistical nature of the wave function which is the basis of the calculation apparatus of modern quantum (wave) mechanics and in his final months assumed that the quantum theory should be deterministic. Only after discovery in 1996 of the space-time quantum (quanton) was it possible to develop a deterministic quantum theory. The classic analysis of the structure of the main elementary particle could be carried out, including the photon, and bypassing the wave function. It was found that the photon is a two-rotor relativistic particle and that its electrical and magnetic rotors exist simultaneously and are situated in the orthogonal polarisation planes. The intersection of the polarisation planes forms the main axis of the photon around which the polarisation waves can rotate. The main axis of the photon is directed in the direction of the speed vector of the movement of the photon in the quantised medium. In this form, the photon represents a wave– particle, some concentrated bunch of the electromagnetic energy of the quantised space-time, flying with the wave speed of light. The electromagnetic field of the photon satisfies the two-rotor Maxwell equation. Calculation parameters of the photon were determined for the first time: the strength of the electrical and magnetic fields in the rotors of the photon, the densities of the electrical and magnetic displacement currents, the currents themselves, and many other parameters which could not previously be calculated. It was found that deceleration of light in an optical medium is caused by the wave trajectory of the photon as a result of the probable capture by the photon of atomic centres of the lattice of the optical medium with the speed vector of the photon in the quantised medium not coinciding with the speed vector in the optical medium.

6.1. Introduction
6.2. Electromagnetic nature of the photon  and rotor models
6.3. Electromagnetic trace of the photon in the quantised medium
6.4. The wave equation of the photon
6.5. Total two-rotor structure of the photon
6.6. Reasons for the deceleration of light in the optical medium
6.7. Probable capture of atomic centres of the lattice of the optical medium by a photon
6.8. Vector diagram of the complex speed of the photon in the optical medium
6.9. Wave trajectory of the photon in the optical medium
6.10. Forces acting on the photon in the optical medium
6.11. Refractive index of the optical medium
Conclusions
References

Conclusions
1. The new fundamental discoveries of the space-time quantum (quanton) and of the superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) open a new era in the quantum theory, establishing the deterministic nature of the quantum mechanics and electrodynamics. Most importantly, the new fundamental discoveries explain the reasons for quantum phenomena hidden in the quantum nature of space-time. It may be confirmed that there are no nonquantised objects in the nature. The quantised objects include the radiation quantum (photon). Previously, it was assumed that energy quantisation takes place by means of radiation quantum. Now we have established the quantisation of the very radiation quantum by the quantons (space-time quanta) where the radiation quantum (photon) represents a secondary wave formation in the quantised space-time.

2. The new fundamental discoveries have made it possible to apply the classic concept in the quantum theory and, at the same time, describe for the first time the nature and structure of the photon whose parameters can be calculated, bypassing the static wave function. It has been established that the photon is a two-rotor relativistic particle whose electrical and magnetic rotors exist simultaneously and are located in the orthogonal polarisation planes. The intersection of the polarisation planes forms the main axis of the photon around which polarisation planes can rotate. The main axis of the photon is directed along the vector of the speed of movement of the photon in the quantised medium. In this form, the photon is a wave-particle, some concentrated bunch of electromagnetic energy of the quantised space-time, travelling at the speed of light.

3. The variable electromagnetic field of the photon satisfies the two-rotor Maxwell equation and the classic wave equation. The calculation parameters of the photon were determined for the first time: the strength of the electrical and magnetic fields in the photon rotors, the density of the electrical and magnetic bias currents, the currents themselves, and many other parameters which could not previously be calculated.

4. It has been established that the deceleration of light in the optical medium is determined by the wave trajectory of the photon as a result of the probability capture by the photon of the atomic centres of the lattice of the optical medium when the vector of the photon speed in the quantised medium does not coincide with the vector of speed in the optical medium. In fact, two waves propagate in the optical medium and these waves are permanently connected together: a) the electromagnetic wave which travels with the speed of light C0 in the quantised medium and is transferred by the light-bearing medium; b) the geometrical wave which propagates in the optical medium with phase speed Cp0 lower than the speed of light C0, which is synchronized with the electromagnetic wave and determines the wave trajectory of the photon in the optical medium.

5. It has been shown that the wave trajectory of the photon in the optical medium can be represented by the first harmonics of the triangular periodic function. The condition of movement of the photon along the wave trajectory is the constancy of the speed of light in the quantised medium. In this case, the imaginary motion along a straight line in the optical medium in the same period of time as in the case of the wave trajectory is regarded as the deceleration of light in the optical medium. The calculations show that the refractive index of the light by the optical medium can be regarded as the averaged parameter of the medium in movement of the photon along the wavy trajectory.

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