**Chapter 3. Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation. Antigravitation**

Leonov V. S.
Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge
International Science Publishing, 2010, 167-261 pages.

The beginning of the 20th century was
marked by the development of the theory of relativity. In the framework of the
general theory of relativity (GTR), Einstein laid the foundations of
gravitation as the properties of distortion of the space-time, assuming that
there is a unified field which is the carrier of electromagnetism and
gravitation. In 1996, the space-time quantum (quanton) and the superstrong
electromagnetic interaction (SEI) was discovered as the united field which is
the carrier of electromagnetic and gravitation interactions. The concentration
of the quantons (quantum density of the medium) is the main parameter of the
quantised space-time. In electromagnetic interactions the concentration of the
quantons does not change and only the orientation and deformation polarisation
of the quantons change. Gravitation is manifested in the case of the gradient
redistribution of the quantum density of the medium, changing the quanton
concentration. Electromagnetism and gravitation have been unified within the
framework of the quantum theory of gravitation based on the quantum as the
unified carrier of electromagnetism and gravitation.

3.1.
Introduction

3.2. Nature
of the electromagnetic wave. The luminiferous medium

3.2.1.
Return to the luminiferous medium

3.2.2.
Optical media. Fizeau experiment

3.3.
Fundamentals of gravitation theory

3.3.1.
Two-component solution of Poisson
equation

3.3.2.
Deformation vector D

3.3.3.
Equivalence of energy and mass

3.3.4.
Gravitational diagram

3.3.5.
Black hole

3.3.6.
Additional gravitational potentials

3.3.7. Newton
gravitational law

3.4.
Reasons for relativism

3.4.1.
Relativistic factor

3.4.2. The
normalised relativistic factor

3.4.3.
Dynamic balance of gravitational potentials

3.4.4.
Limiting parameters of relativistic particles

3.4.5.
Hidden mass. Mass balance

3.4.6.
Hidden energy. Energy balance

3.4.7.
Dynamic Poisson equations

3.4.8.
Dynamic curvature of space-time

3.4.9. The
speed of light

3.5. Nature
of gravity and inertia

3.5.1.
Formation of mass

3.5.2.
Reasons for gravity and inertia

3.5.3.
Simple quantum mechanics effects

3.6. The
principle of relative-absolute dualism. Bifurcation points

3.6.1.
Energy balance

3.6.2.
Absolute speed

3.6.3.
Energy paradox of motion dynamics

3.6.4.
Resistance to movement in vacuum

3.6.5.
Dynamics equations

3.6.6.
Bifurcation points

3.6.7.
Complex speed

3.6.8.
Relativistic momentum

3.7. Wave
mass transfer. Gravitational waves

3.8. Time
problems. Chronal waves

3.9.
Antigravitation. Accelerated recession of galaxies

3.10.
Dimensions of the space-time quantum (quanton)

Conclusions
for chapter 3

References

**Conclusions for chapter 3**

The unification of electromagnetism and
gravitation was regarded as a fact. It has been established that gravitation is
of the electromagnetic nature whose carrier is the superstrong electromagnetic
interaction (SEI).

Gravitation appears in the quantised
space-time as a result of its spherical deformation in the formation of the
mass of elementary particles.

Correct two-component solutions of the
Poisson gravitational equation in the form of a system have been determined for
the first time. The functions of distribution of the quantum density of the
medium and gravitational potentials inside the particle (solid) in the external
region of the spherically deformed quantised space-time have been determined.

It is shown that these spherical
functions remain invariant in the entire range of speeds, including the speed
of light, and formulate principle of spherical invariance and relative-absolute
dualism.

The principal relativity is the
fundamental property of the quantised space-time. Gravity is caused by the
gradient of the quantum density of the medium and by its deformation vector
with the gravity and inertia acting in the direction of this vector.

The force of inertia is also caused by
the gradient of the quantum density of the medium and works in the direction of
the deformation vector. The gravitational field is quantised in its principle.
The space-time quantum (quanton), as a carrier of the gravitational field, is
used as a basis for developing the quantum theory of gravitation.

The discovery of the quanton has
returned the deterministic base to the quantum theory which was supported by
Einstein. The classic wave equation of the elementary particle determining the
wave transfer of mass in the superhard and the superelastic quantised medium
was analytically derived for the first time.

The wave transfer of mass determines the
effect of the principle of corpuscular-wave dualism in which the particle shows
both the properties of the wave and the corpuscle.

It has been established that the free
gravitational wave with the speed of light and longitudinal oscillations of the
quantised medium, generating the longitudinal the zones of compression and
tension in the quantised medium, can exist in the quantised space-time.

The nature of gravitation, which
explains the accelerated recession of the galaxies of our universe, has been
determined.

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