Chapter 3. Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation. Antigravitation
Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 167-261 pages.
The beginning of the 20th century was marked by the development of the theory of relativity. In the framework of the general theory of relativity (GTR), Einstein laid the foundations of gravitation as the properties of distortion of the space-time, assuming that there is a unified field which is the carrier of electromagnetism and gravitation. In 1996, the space-time quantum (quanton) and the superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) was discovered as the united field which is the carrier of electromagnetic and gravitation interactions. The concentration of the quantons (quantum density of the medium) is the main parameter of the quantised space-time. In electromagnetic interactions the concentration of the quantons does not change and only the orientation and deformation polarisation of the quantons change. Gravitation is manifested in the case of the gradient redistribution of the quantum density of the medium, changing the quanton concentration. Electromagnetism and gravitation have been unified within the framework of the quantum theory of gravitation based on the quantum as the unified carrier of electromagnetism and gravitation.
3.2. Nature of the electromagnetic wave. The luminiferous medium
3.2.1. Return to the luminiferous medium
3.2.2. Optical media. Fizeau experiment
3.3. Fundamentals of gravitation theory
3.3.1. Two-component solution of Poisson equation
3.3.2. Deformation vector D
3.3.3. Equivalence of energy and mass
3.3.4. Gravitational diagram
3.3.5. Black hole
3.3.6. Additional gravitational potentials
3.3.7. Newton gravitational law
3.4. Reasons for relativism
3.4.1. Relativistic factor
3.4.2. The normalised relativistic factor
3.4.3. Dynamic balance of gravitational potentials
3.4.4. Limiting parameters of relativistic particles
3.4.5. Hidden mass. Mass balance
3.4.6. Hidden energy. Energy balance
3.4.7. Dynamic Poisson equations
3.4.8. Dynamic curvature of space-time
3.4.9. The speed of light
3.5. Nature of gravity and inertia
3.5.1. Formation of mass
3.5.2. Reasons for gravity and inertia
3.5.3. Simple quantum mechanics effects
3.6. The principle of relative-absolute dualism. Bifurcation points
3.6.1. Energy balance
3.6.2. Absolute speed
3.6.3. Energy paradox of motion dynamics
3.6.4. Resistance to movement in vacuum
3.6.5. Dynamics equations
3.6.6. Bifurcation points
3.6.7. Complex speed
3.6.8. Relativistic momentum
3.7. Wave mass transfer. Gravitational waves
3.8. Time problems. Chronal waves
3.9. Antigravitation. Accelerated recession of galaxies
3.10. Dimensions of the space-time quantum (quanton)
Conclusions for chapter 3
Conclusions for chapter 3
The unification of electromagnetism and gravitation was regarded as a fact. It has been established that gravitation is of the electromagnetic nature whose carrier is the superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI).
Gravitation appears in the quantised space-time as a result of its spherical deformation in the formation of the mass of elementary particles.
Correct two-component solutions of the Poisson gravitational equation in the form of a system have been determined for the first time. The functions of distribution of the quantum density of the medium and gravitational potentials inside the particle (solid) in the external region of the spherically deformed quantised space-time have been determined.
It is shown that these spherical functions remain invariant in the entire range of speeds, including the speed of light, and formulate principle of spherical invariance and relative-absolute dualism.
The principal relativity is the fundamental property of the quantised space-time. Gravity is caused by the gradient of the quantum density of the medium and by its deformation vector with the gravity and inertia acting in the direction of this vector.
The force of inertia is also caused by the gradient of the quantum density of the medium and works in the direction of the deformation vector. The gravitational field is quantised in its principle. The space-time quantum (quanton), as a carrier of the gravitational field, is used as a basis for developing the quantum theory of gravitation.
The discovery of the quanton has returned the deterministic base to the quantum theory which was supported by Einstein. The classic wave equation of the elementary particle determining the wave transfer of mass in the superhard and the superelastic quantised medium was analytically derived for the first time.
The wave transfer of mass determines the effect of the principle of corpuscular-wave dualism in which the particle shows both the properties of the wave and the corpuscle.
It has been established that the free gravitational wave with the speed of light and longitudinal oscillations of the quantised medium, generating the longitudinal the zones of compression and tension in the quantised medium, can exist in the quantised space-time.
The nature of gravitation, which explains the accelerated recession of the galaxies of our universe, has been determined.