вторник, 12 февраля 2013 г.

Theory of Superunification. Chapter 5. Quantised structure of nucleons. The nature of nuclear forces

Chapter 5. Quantised structure of nucleons. The nature of nuclear forces

Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pages.

In 1966, the structure of nucleons with the sign-changing shell with integer charges – quarks was proposed in the theory of the elastic quantised medium (EQM). This concept proved to be fruitful for the Superunification theory and enabled the nature of nuclear forces to be investigated as contact forces acting between the sign-changing shells of the nucleons. These forces act over short distances and their magnitude and nature correspond to the nuclear forces, but they are characterised by electrical attraction of shells and their antigravitational repulsion.

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Problem of the nucleon mass
5.3. Shell sign-changing model of the nucleon
5.4. Shell models of the proton
5.5. Shell models of the neutron
5.6. Structure of nucleon shells
5.7. Prospects for splitting the nucleon into elementary components
5.8. Electrical natue of nuclear forces
5.9. Analytical calculation of nuclear forces
5.10. Electrical energy of nuclear forces
5.11. Electrical potential of nuclear forces
5.12. Calculation of neutron interaction
5.13. Proton-proton interaction
5.14. Nuclear forces in quantum mechanics
5.15. The zones of antigravitational repulsion in the nucleon shells
5.16. Conclusions

5.16. Conclusions
The nature of the nuclear forces is one of the most important problems of theoretical physics. It has been assumed that the nuclear forces are the maximum possible forces in nature, characterising the strong fundamental interaction, as one of the four forces known in nature. Attempts to unify the strong interaction with other: electromagnetism and gravitation, have not been successful. It has been shown that this is caused by the fact that on the whole the strong interaction is not a carrier of the maximum possible force and cannot be therefore used as a unifying factor. In order to unify the nuclear forces with gravitation and electromagnetism, and also electroweak interactions, we must have an even greater force, previously not known in science. This is the golden rule of physics that the force can be conquered only by a greater force.

The presence of such a Superforce, as the fifth force, became known after discovery of the quantum of space-time (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction. In particular, SEI (and not the strong interaction) is the carrier of the Superforce. For comparison: the attraction force of the nucleons, characterising the nuclear forces, is estimated at approximately 0.63 kN (Table 5.1), and the force of interaction between the quantons is of the order of 1023 N. The diameter of the nucleon is ~10–15 m, the diameter of the quanton ~10–25 m. Even if we not relate the forces to their crosssection, these forces are simply incommensurable. As we penetrate deeper into matter, we face higher and higher concentrations of forces and energy. It becomes clear that the only source of energy in the universe is the superstrong electromagnetic interaction. This is electromagnetic energy. All the known types of energy (chemical, nuclear, electromagnetic, gravitation, etc) are regarded in the final analysis as the manifestation of the superstrong interaction and are represent only method of extracting the energy of this interaction. We live in the electromagnetic universe.

The nuclear forces, acting between the nucleons and the atomic nucleus, must be examined from the unified positions of unification of the fundamental interactions through the superstrong electromagnetic interaction. Here, it must be understood that the mass of the nucleons forms as a result of the spherical deformation of the quantised space-time which is a carrier of the superstrong electromagnetic interaction. It has been established that the only possible method of spherically deforming the elastic quantised medium, ensuring that all the possible properties of the nucleons are utilised, is the presence in the nucleon of the shell assembled from electrical massless charges with sign-changing signs.

This shell is sign-changing and has the property of contracting on the sphere with the effect of forces of electrical attraction between the charges of the nucleon shell. The spherical compression of the sign-changing shell takes place together with the medium inside the shell. However, on the external side of the shell, the elastic quantised medium is subjected to tension. In this case, the quantum density of the medium (quanton concentration) inside the shell increases and outside the shell it decreases. Consequently, the nucleon assumes a mass as the parameter of ‘distortion’ of the quantised space-time under the effect of spherical deformation. The resistance of the shell to collapse is limited by the pressure of the medium inside the shell which is balanced by the tension of the elastic quantised medium from the external side. In addition, the factor of stability of the nucleons in relation to the collapse of the shell includes the zones of anti-gravitational repulsion between the nuclei of the sign-changing shell whose effect starts to be evident at distances shorter than the classic electron radius of the electron.

Another fundamental property of the sign-changing shells of the nucleons is their capacity to be attracted by the charges with opposite polarity, regardless of the presence or absence of a non-compensated electrical charge. In the proton, the shell contains a non-compensated electrical charge with positive polarity and an odd number of charges – 69 charges. In the neutron, the number of charges in the sign-changing shell is even (72 charges) and these charges are compensated in pairs, so that the neutron is regarded as an electrically neutral particle.

The electrical neutrality of the neutron is evident at distances greater than 10–15 m. At shorter distances, not only in the neutron but also in the proton, the electrical field of the sign-changing shell of the nucleons is characterised by specific features of action at short distances of 10–16... 10–15 m, comparable with the spacing of the distribution of the charges in the shell. These are short-range fields and forces which enable the forces of electrostatic attraction of the shells to overcome the forces of electrostatic repulsion of the non-compensated charge of the protons in the atomic nucleus. The open zones of anti-gravitational repulsion in the complicated relief of the fields of the nucleon shells prevent the nucleons from coming together closer than 10–16 m, thus avoiding the collapse of the nucleons and ensuring stability of the nuclei.

In particular, the sign-changing structure of the nucleon shells, including the zones of electrostatic attraction and anti-gravitational repulsion, has made it possible to formulate a concept of the electrical nature of nuclear forces within the framework of the Superunification theory.

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